Tuesday, April 10, 2018

The Wisdom of Taxi Cab Drivers

Recently, I was at conference held at UN speaking on a panel about Ethical Design for Artificial Intelligence. One of the hot topics in artificial intelligence is automated driving. In all the weighting of the costs and benefits of automated driving, I have yet to see the wisdom of taxi cab drivers figured in.

The moderator for the panel and I were on our way to dinner with the other panelists. We were taking a stroll to stretch our legs after the long flight to Geneva. Google maps app has lead, or rather mislead, us about a mile out of the way. Dinner was starting in 10 minutes. We hailed a cab. My French is passable, and I love talking to cabbies. The cabbie driver spoke French with an accent almost as pronounced as I, but not the same. Turns out he was from Spain, and he had been driving taxis in Geneva for 35 years. His wife was Swiss, and they had two children. I asked what he liked best about his job and he responded that what he enjoyed the most was meeting different people and hearing a little bit about their lives. He added the caveat that this was the case for visitors to the country or other immigrants, like him, but usually not for Swiss nationals. They, he said, generally would not speak to him except to give directions. His gestures and tone spoke of a certain sadness and resignation. We talked a little about the importance of connecting as humans, and how not making that connection can feel devaluing.

The cab ride was short, and I was unable to tell him that the most recent World Happiness Report revealed the very truth that he spoke of. Immigrants, whether living in a country for most of their lives and married to a national, or just arriving, are happier when they are treated as part of the fabric of a country and culture, instead of separated or ostracized. This does not mean that cultural differences should be eradicated, but rather that differences can be a point of connection through curiosity and respect.

The World Happiness Report for 2018 points to a sense of belonging as key to happiness for migrants. In countries where social exclusion is the norm, migrants suffer from discrimination and unhappy because of it. According to the World Happiness Report for 2018, ninety percent of people who migrate do so voluntarily. Only ten percent of migrants are refugees. Most people migrate for economic reasons, for career or educational reasons, or to enjoy greater freedoms, such as religious or political expression. A study done using the Happiness Alliance data found that reversing discrimination had a big impact on people’s happiness, and that everybody is happier; the people who suffered discrimination and those whose minds go from being prejudiced and biased to open.
At our panel dinner, we were joined by an ambassador, who invited us to his home the next night. The next day, around 6:30 pm, we hopped into a cab, and thus began my second sip from the cup of the wisdom of cab drivers.

This time, the cab ride was longer, and so the conversation richer. This cab driver came from Portugal, his wife also was Portuguese. They had two adult children and two grandchildren, all born in Geneva. His father had taken him to Brazil when he was a teen-ager to escape being drafted into war. He had migrated to Switzerland when he was in his twenties, seeing an opportunity to make a higher income than he could have in Brazil or Portugal. Now, 40 years later, he feels torn between one sense of home and another sense of home. His sisters and extended family live in Portugal, and he longs to be with them. He feels most at home in Portugal next to his sisters, nieces, nephews and other family members, but his children, born in Geneva, have no plans to migrate. He misses the warmth of his homeland, and feels shut out by a sense of cultural coldness. If he had his life to do again, he would not have chosen a higher income over family.

He could have been a spokesperson for the World Happiness Report. In South America, people generally experience the feeling of happiness, called “positive affect” by researchers, more than in other countries. Part of the reason for this is that family ties are strong and people’s concept of happiness are often founded on family. For example, if you ask someone from one of these countries what makes them happy, they are most likely to respond “family.” Migrating away from your family to make more money, or even to send money home, may seem like a good idea economically, but will probably lead to long term heartache. A short-term migration to save money and return home would probably have been a better option, but even that kind of migration can be hard in terms of feelings on both the person who migrates and the family left behind.

My next cab ride was from a Tunisian. I was happy to talk to him, as I was born in Tunisia. We had about 20 minutes to chat, and quickly he revealed his wisdom to me. He railed about the rich getting richer at the expense of the poor, and how the richer a person gets, the more they want. I egged him on, citing the Easterlin Paradox, by which after a certain level of income, returns on happiness are marginal. Before I was done with my explanation, he finished my thoughts saying that after a man makes a million dollars, he needs two million to make him as happy, then after that 10 million and so on so that at no point does he ever experience a sense of enough. We agreed so vehemently, we were both kind of yelling with enthusiasm about our mutual point by the end of the cab ride.

This point is one of the key lessons from the happiness movement: the Easterlin Paradox. In simple terms, money only buys happiness up to the point where you are able to meet your needs — from basic needs of sustenance and shelter, to needs of entertainment, creative outlet and learning. After that, there are only marginal increases to happiness, meaning it takes a lot of money to get a little bit of happiness.

The Tunisian cabbie seemed like a relatively happy person, and when I asked him if he was happy, he said some days, yes, somedays no, but our conversation had made him very happy. A lesson in the 2018 World Happiness Report regarding income levels, migrants and happiness has to do with social comparisons. People who migrate from poverty to a place of plenty experience a change in referenced point. After a relatively short point, while their income in the new country may seem extravagant compared to back home, it may feel like a pittance compared to the people around them. This is called social comparisons. Just because all of a sudden you can afford new Nike tennis shoes, you won’t necessarily be happier if most of the people around you are wearing the latest Stephano Ricci sneakers.

I took my last cabbie ride to the airport, early in morning. I am a homebody, and had been feeling homesick the entire trip, so was really looking forward to being home. 
The cabbie was from Haiti. We talked about what made for happiness in a country. His wisdom was that every type of government is more similar than different. For example, he said, in a dictatorship or in a democracy, the law is the law and when you break the law, you are punished. Food, jobs, housing is what makes people happy, he told me. A government that ensures people have food in their belly, jobs to work, and a place to live is the most important thing, according to him. He said that when his country was run by Papa Doc, people had food, jobs and housing. Life then, from his experience, was no different than in the democracy he lived in today. Food, jobs, housing he recited. The cab ride ended before I could ask him about the darker side of Papa Doc’s reign.

A discussion of the failures of democracy as a form of government in African nations is part of the 2017 World Happiness Report. It sites unmet expectations as one reason for the dissatisfaction with democratic forms of government and general unhappiness. Meeting needs — from the basic ones of food, jobs and shelter — to the higher needs of a sense of belonging, purpose and meaning, are all foundational to our happiness, so in a way, the Haitian cabbie had it right.

A long flight later, my little voyage was over and I was so glad to be home. For me, like for so many, family and home is where the heart is, and what makes me happy.
Read the World Happiness Report here. 

Friday, March 9, 2018

Are we failing our children?

The nation has been shocked and saddened by the recent shooting in Florida, and our hearts go out to all those involved. As we ask ourselves what could have been done to prevent such horrific action from a troubled youth, we ask ourselves, is he an outlier, or a symptom of a larger problem?

To delve deeper into this question, we reviewed the data survey respondents across the nation provided during 2017. Many schools and other groups encourage youth to participate, so we have responses from people as young as age 79. If you're familiar with the term midlife crisis, then you might understand that as researchers, we expect to see a u-shaped curve when we are looking at happiness, with that "midlife" group in the lowest bracket compared to the younger (12-17 & 18-26) and older (70-79) age groups. 

Here's what we found:

Purpose and Meaning:
Youth are not experiencing greater sense of purpose and meaning compared to their parents, and don't have a comparable sense of meaning compared to the elderly. This may be somewhat anticipated as they are often still seeking to determine where they fit into the greater scheme of life. Parents can help their children increase their sense of having a meaningful life by encouraging them to think about how their life impacts others around them in the now, rather than focusing on the distant future. 

Feelings of Anxiousness:
A worrisome pattern emerged when we looked at the question, "Overall, how anxious did you feel yesterday?" 18 to 26-year-olds were more anxious by far than 46 to 49-year-olds, and 12 to 17-year-olds were more anxious then 46-48-year-olds as well. This suggests that our youth are bearing a disproportionate emotional burden worries that may be difficult for them to process. Parents can help by talking to their children to assess what might be causing them concern, and seeking to help them alleviate any burden of anxiousness and the situations and conditions they are dealing with that give rise to anxiety.

Happiness and Life Satisfaction:
The questions regarding overall happiness and life satisfaction both demonstrated a more u-like shape, suggesting that overall levels of happiness and satisfaction with life are fairly good for our youth

A Worthwhile Life:
Youth-rated only slightly better than mid-life adults when it came to whether they felt that the things they do in life were worthwhile; this rating was far below the senior group. The importance of a sense of worth in your daily actions cannot be undervalued. Studies of self-worth in youth have shown that increased levels of self-worth serve a preventative function in reducing behavioral problems, problems with academic performance, and problems with emotional behaviors--exactly the type of problems we see occurring in this unfortunate incident. As parents, it is important that your child's sense of self-worth be supported to reasonable levels, and reasonable expectations of worthiness established and supported that are external from how other people treat them.  

What Can We Do?
It is a complex question and one that will take many parties and much effort, but one thing you can do is to set a good example and helping children and youth to find their happiness. Every child, youth and adult has the capacity, need and right to feel worthy, have a sense of purpose and meaning, and and to not be visited by anxiety on a regular basis.  You can help children find greater levels of self-worth, purpose, and inner happiness, by developing your own self worth, finding and following your life's purpose, and cultivating your own happiness. 

Monday, February 19, 2018

Planning for Happiness: Indonesia's Recipe for Happiness

This past week, at the Dialogue for Global Happiness in Dubai, Bambang Brojonegoro, the Minister of National Development Planning of Indonesia, presented  his nation's recipe for happiness. It is an approach  that will likely be quickly followed by other countries.

Indonesia is about one fifth the size of the USA. About 87% of the population are Muslim.  With approximately 253 million people, the population is about 78% of that in the USA. Imagine the population of the USA increasing four fold, from 323 million to 1.6 billion and you have an idea of the population density in Indonesia. On the Indonesia archipelago, over 300 language are spoken.  The average income is 90% less than that in the USA. This means many of the people in Indonesia live in poverty.

Indonesia's happiness ranking is pretty low. Out of 155 countries, its happiness ranking is 81, with one being the highest (Norway).  According to this happiness ranking, happiness is determined by six factors: Gross Domestic Product per capita (average income), social support (having someone to count on in times of need, generosity (donating but not volunteering), healthy life expectancy, perceptions of corruption in the government, and freedom to make life choices. In Indonesia, income, social support and generosity are the largest contributors to happiness, while perception of corruption does not figure for Indonesia's the rankings in 2017.

In light of this low score, at the Dialogue for Global Happiness, Bambang Brojonegoro posed the question: What to do? In the Indonesian government, the planning department is taking on the integration of happiness into sustainability and the operations of government. Their entry way is the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SGD), arranged in a pyramid.   The pathway for their integration is the three core values of Muslim religion: 1) Hablum minalla: people to God vertical relationship, Hablum minannas: people to people horizontal relationship and 3) Hablum minal'alam: people to nature relationship. These values are translated into Indonesian culture as 1) harmony of people with people, 2) harmony of people with nature and, 3) harmony of people with the spiritual.

But what does this mean in terms of practical application at the governmental level. In the words of Bambang Brojonegoro, what to do?

The pathway seems obvious for remedying a nation of people in poverty: economic development. But developing an economy aligned with the SDG goals that brings about the happiness and well-being of its people is not that obvious, as the economic development of many of the richest countries in the world well demonstrates (except maybe Norway...).   Bambang Brojonegoror spoke of goals within the framework of economic development: employment, household income and self development through education and skill training. He also talked about realizing these goals through programs and policies aimed at increasing the happiness and well-being levels of his nation's people. "Happiness will bring economic growth ultimately" he said. He seems to have things backwards from the accepted point of view. Genius.  It's a formula the rest of the world would do well to consider.

The measurement his government is using instead of GDP is a happiness index. Now, there are many happiness indices, from our own, the Happiness Alliance's Happiness Index, to Gallup's World Poll, the OECD Better Life Index, and many others.  But the Indonesian Planning Department decided to create their own. Maybe because they score so low on other indices, or maybe because the data would be more useful for their purposes, or maybe a combination of these and other factors, they have created what they call the Indonesia Happiness Index.

The Indonesia Happiness Index is composed of three parts: Life Satisfaction, Affect (feelings), and Eudaimonia (Meaning in life). This composition is aligned with the OECD Guidelines for Measuring Subjective Well-being. In the life satisfaction dimension "personal relationship satisfaction and social relationship satisfaction" are measured.  In the feeling dimension, "unworried feeling, happy feeling and un-depressed feeling" are measured. In the meaning of life dimension, "interdependency, self-acceptance, development and positive relation with other people" are measured.

The data will be used "so people's well-being...is the center of development" said Bambang Brojonegoro.  Plans at the Department of Planning are to first focus on what people value the most in Indonesia: ways of strengthening families. This approach of focusing on strengths to address areas of weakness is considered to be the pathway for economic growth in the long run. Again, genius. 

Bambang Brojonegoro ended his talk at the Dialogue for Global Happiness with a quote to explain the effect this approach has had on civil servants in the department of National Development Planning of Indonesia:

"Nothing makes us happier more than making others happy around us."

Wednesday, February 14, 2018

Unhappy? You are not alone

The Gross National Happiness Scores for 2017 are here and the news is not good. At first we were suspicious of the low scores: maybe most of the people who took the survey were unhappy because of the current political situation  We decided to test our data. It turns out that we are not the only ones finding that people's happiness in 2017 took a dip. Gallup, a consultancy group that randomly polls, corroborates our findings, but also affirmed our suspicions: people who do not feel aligned with the current regime in the U.S. White House are suffering. 

Who is taking the Happiness Index Survey?

About 900 people a month take the Happiness Index survey. A little over half are women. The majority are between 25-65 years of age. Over 95% are from the U.S.A. although groups of people in Beirut, Kuwait, Japan, and Canada used our survey in 2017.  Many educators also use it.  (Anyone can, by signing up. It is all free). 

That said, most of the people who took the survey learned about it from a google ad, as we are the recipient of a grant from google. Our plan for 2018 is to expand our reach to include people we had not reached before. 

We will have more information about who took the survey and how happy (or unhappy) they are throughout the year.  

The bad news: where it hurts the most.

The bad news about our happiness scores is that we are unhappy where it hurts the most: our psychological well-being and our satisfaction with life.  Psychological well-being is measured with a flourishing index that includes questions about purpose, optimism, and positivity. Satisfaction with life gets at the question: are you are living a life that is right for you.  Historically, Americans score high in these areas even when they score low in the other domains of happiness.

This is concerning, because when we are hurting psychologically, there are impacts on our health, families, engagement in community,  job performance, and other aspects of our happiness and well-being.  

There is a strong message right now coming from the field of positive psychology that your psychological health is in large part under your control. The message goes something like this:  "If you practice mindfulness, gratitude and generosity on a regular basis, you will be happier. If you don't, it's your own fault you are not happy." 

We at the Happiness Alliance say that while you do have a choice about how you feel, it is only to a certain extent. The conditions of your life, also called the domains of happiness, have a big impact - particularly big when they are depleting instead of supporting your psychological well-being and satisfaction with life. So while it is good to develop your happiness skills, it is also crucial to do what you can to bring about the exterior circumstances that support your well-being. Having conversations about life's circumstances and the implications on your happiness and the well-being of others is the first step towards changing those conditions that are causing you to hurt. Then comes activism.  You can use our happiness index to spur these conversations and inspire action.  You can use our policy tools for taking action in your community for system change. 

The good news 

One area that our scores have increased is in lifelong learning. This is great news because it means we are engaging in ways that are increasing our capacity for taking action.

Learning is something we do throughout our lives. We learn on many different platforms.  Ken Wilber called them "modes of development."  They are kinesthetic, strategic, emotional, interpersonal, intrapersonal, social and cultural, intellectual, artistics, moral, and spiritual.  

Learning empowers us to make change happen.  

More about our happiness scores in our next newsletter

We will send you more information about our happiness scores in our next newsletters.  And...we welcome collaboration. If you are interested in joining our team or using our data for your research, email us at info@happycounts.org.

And you can always use our index for free - because we believe strongly that to see the change you have to be the change, and so our index for a paradigm shift in our economy, society and government will always be free.

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Monday, December 18, 2017

Do you feel loved? A Love and Happiness Data Story

Do you feel loved? A Love and Happiness Data Story
Post written by Alice Vo Edwards and Laura Musikanski 

Do you feel loved? 

This is one of the questions in the Happiness Index. This month we look at data from November, 2017 for 968 people answering the question between November 1 and 30th on a five point scale. An answer of one means "I never feel loved l" and an answer of 5 means "I feel loved very often or always."  

The most frequent and the average answer is "I feel loved sometimes" (290 people).  266 people responded that "I feel loved often," and 244 responded "I feel loved often or always."  Only 5% said that they never feel loved. 
So how about you? Do you feel loved never, rarely, sometimes, often, or very often or always.  Your answer might be partly contingent on your age.

Some ideas, based on the book, The Five Languages of Love: 
  • Listen attentively without offering advice. 
  • Doing something nice for them. 
  • Give a small gift periodically out of the blue. 
  • Taking time to hug or cuddle if they want that.
  • Tell them good things about them. 

Then ask for their feedback on your idea. Listen! Revise your idea based on their feedback, and ask again for their feedback. Do this until they say you do understand them.

Set the intention to spend a little time each day demonstrating love, and do it. Pick up when you lapse. Everybody does. It's no big deal as long as you pick back up. 

Love & Age Takeaway: If you have a young person in your life, take some time to reflect on how you can interact with that person so they feel that they are loved. 

The overwhelming majority of things that made people happy can be summarized in one word: Connection.

The things that made people happy involved their connections with other people primarily (family, love, friends, people, relationships), but also included our surroundings (nature) and animals.

One outlier was that food made the #4 spot in November for "in one word, what makes you happy?" It would be interesting to know if those that answered "food" think of food in context with connecting with others -- is this about eating Hagen Daz alone at home,  or Thanksgiving dinner with friends and family? Yet another example of how everything I learn just leaves me with more questions!

Also interesting to me that this data supports the national focus on building community and connections with others as being the top thing that can be done to prevent suicide. If you know of someone who might be lonely this holiday season, maybe invite them to dinner and give them a little food and connection at the same time. 

Workplace happiness: Key factors to consider

Workplace Happiness: Key Factors to Consider 
Post written by Lilli Hender

Happiness isn’t always the easiest thing to come by but attempting to find it is a worthwhile endeavour. Achieving happiness in every aspect of your life is a daunting task to set yourself, so it can be helpful to break down the human experience into separate categories.

In her Ted Talk about stress triggers for millennials, Allison Osborne refers to a ‘personal priority pie’ that consists of: friends and family; significant other; work and career; personal and spiritual development; health and wellness; and finally, fun and leisure. They are all interconnected but working out the key ingredients you want to focus on in your ‘pie’ can help you towards improving your happiness levels.

When we spend on average 90,000 hours at work over the course of a lifetime, the work and career ‘slice’ is naturally going to be a priority for many people. In terms of happiness in the workplace and contentment with your career path, there are a variety of factors that bear serious consideration. Lilli Hender, of Office Genie, recently wrote a whitepaper on workplace happiness and she shares her insights.

Job satisfaction

How comfortable you are in your job has a significant impact on your overall happiness. If you’re not satisfied with your working life, it can be detrimental to your health, your wellbeing and your relationships. When Office Genie surveyed 2,000 office workers they discovered the top five causes for discontentment and stress are as follows:

·       Feeling overworked (47%)
·       Feeling a lack of control over my role (25%)
·       Not feeling fulfilled (25%)
·       Not feeling challenged (22%)
·       A bad relationship with management (21%)

In terms of what would improve workplace happiness, pay rises were voted the top solution. While pay rises can go some of the way to tackling the above complaints, – if you’re feeling overworked for too little pay, for example – there’s more that needs to be considered. Two things in particular can go some of the way to helping: flexible working and fostering a good relationship with your boss.

Becoming more flexible

Not only can flexible hours boost your engagement with work, they allow you to have more control over the role and, importantly, your life more generally. If you have to get the children to school or need to book a doctors’ appointment, rather than stressing about getting to work late or having to take time off, you can work adapted hours and make up the time when you can.
The right to request flexible working is available to all UK employees provided they have been with the company for 26 weeks or more. Employers must respond within three months of the request and the request encompasses: part-time employment; remote working; flexi-time; staggered hours; and compressed hours. The better your work/life balance, the happier you’re more likely to be.

You and your boss

When you type “my boss is” into Google an array of depressing search suggestions come up, the first three of which are “my boss is crazy”, “my boss is mean” and “my boss is bullying me”.  Bad relationships with managers have been shown to lead to stress and, on the flip side, apathy.
Discussing the problems you have with your boss isn’t an easy task: they are in a senior position and while they should take criticism on board, it’s understandable to fear it will negatively impact the relationship further. Honesty is very important, however, and sometimes necessary if you want things to change.
If your manager has an open-door policy, make the most of it. Voice concerns in a measured manner and one which encourages practical applications. Stressors such as the ones found in Office Genie’s Workplace Happiness Report are too big to be overlooked. Your boss ultimately wants you to do the best job you can, and if they can help, even if it means them adapting too, they should and (generally) will. Have faith!
To find out more about the relationship between work and happiness, the Harvard Business Review note a range of studies and literature on the subject in the article, ‘The Research We’ve Ignored About Happiness at Work’.


Sunday, September 10, 2017

Happiness Movement FAQ

Happiness Movement Frequently Asked Questions

The happiness movement represents a paradigmatic shift where the well-being, happiness and sustainability of people and our planet matter most. Many do not understand what the happiness movement is or even that such a movement exists. Here are presented frequently asked questions and short answers for the visionaries working in the happiness movement.

Happiness can’t be measured, can it?

The issuance of the World Happiness Report first in 2012, and then again in 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017 proves not just that happiness can be measured, but also how to measure it. Further clarifying this issue is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD) Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being. Thus, the question is not whether happiness can be measured and if it can be measured subjectively (yes) but what to measure.

·      World Happiness Report: http://worldhappiness.report/
·      OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being: http://www.oecd.org/statistics/oecd-guidelines-on-measuring-subjective-well-being-9789264191655-en.htm

Isn't happiness too “fuzzy” to measure?

Happiness is defined and measured in three different ways; feelings (affect), eudaimonia (the good life, or thriving), and satisfaction with life and the conditions of life.

These three aspects provide different information that informs different issues and reveals different implications. Affect can tell us how a specific environment or situation impacts a person in the moment. For example, are people happier or more anxious working remotely or in the office; when commuting to work on the bus or in their car; or when married or not, etc? Eudaimonia tells us what motivates people, and how resilient we are. For example, do you have a sense of purpose in your life? So you feel like your life is worthwhile? Are you optimistic about your future? Satisfaction with Life and the Conditions of Life gives us information about our remembered experience, which is fundamental to understanding why and how we will make decisions. For example, will people perceive a neighborhood or city safer or less safe, find one job satisfying or less satisfying than another, etc.

Resources and Links:
·      Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi. D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). New measures of well-being: Flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 39, 247-266.
·      Kahneman, D. (2010). The Riddle of Experience Versus Memory. TED2010. https://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_kahneman_the_riddle_of_experience_vs_memory
·      Kahneman, D., Fredrickson, B., Schreiber, C., & Redelmeier, D. (1993). When More Pain is Preferred to Less; Adding a Better End. Psychological Science. 4 (1993): 401-405.

How do you measure happiness?

To measure how someone is feeling (called affect by scientists), you simply ask.  That the feeling of happiness and other feelings can be measured through questions and that one can get a response that one can rely upon to understand a person’s happiness is backed by science (Frey & Luechinger, 2007; Pavot & Diener, 1993). When asking about feelings, it is important to ask about one feeling at a time.  Diener et. al. (2009) developed an affect scale that includes 12 feelings: positive, negative, good, bad, pleasant, unpleasant, happy, sad, afraid, joyful, angry, and contented.

That said, it is up to each person to define what happiness, sadness, joy, anger, anxiety, calm, etc, is to them. Your sense of being happy may be very different from the person next to you or on the other side of the world, but both definitions are caught by the term happiness.  In the United Kingdom (UK), the Office of National Statistics (ONS) well-being survey (formerly called happiness survey) includes questions for happiness and anxiety, and, following the UK ONS, the Happiness Index (Happiness Alliance –happycounts.org) does as well.

To measure eudaimonia, one commonly uses what is called a flourishing scale.  The Happiness Index’s flourishing scale asks questions about areas of optimism, positivity, purpose, engagement, accomplishment, and worthiness. The Happiness Index’s flourishing scale is based on questions from the OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being and work by Huppert and So (2011). It also includes the same question about worthiness that is in the UK ONS’ well-being survey.

To measure satisfaction with life, one can use the Cantril Ladder question, asking whether this life is the best or worse possible life, as well as a question the question “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays?”  These two questions together in a survey represent the best practice to date. Both are included in the Happiness Index. 

Satisfaction with Life’s circumstances begs the question of what are life’s circumstances, also called domains. In the nation of Bhutan, where Gross National Happiness is measured using a survey instrument, the domains measured are: government, economy (standard of living), environment, culture, community, health, education and time balance in addition to measures for satisfaction with life, affect and eudaimonia. The OECD Better Life Index measures the domains of housing, income, jobs, community, education, environment, civic engagement, health, safety, work-life balance as well as measures for life satisfaction. The Happiness Index measures the same domains as Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness Index but includes the area of work. 

Resources & Links:

·       Better Life Index: http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/
·       Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness Index: http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/
·       Happiness Alliance Happiness Index Methodology: http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/jsc/vol9/iss1/2/
·       Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi. D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). New measures of well-being: Flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 39, 247-266.
·       Frey, B. & Luechinger, S. (2007). Concepts of happiness and their measurement. Hessen, Germany: Metropolis Verlag
·       Huppert, F., & So, T. (2011). Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Social Indicators Research, 110, (3), 837–-861.  doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9966-7
·       Pavot, W. & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Psychological Assessment,5(2),164-172.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.164

Happiness is a frivolous matter and pursuit, isn’t it?

Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence” – Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics.

We know this intuitively when we say that all we want for our children is that they are happy and healthy. It is important to understand that Aristotle used the term eudaimonia as synonymous with happiness. Today the term eudaimonia (eu is Ancient Greek for good, daimon is Ancient Greek for spirit or soul) can be interpreted as flourishing, or reaching one’s full potential. It is important to note that this interpretation of happiness encompasses the care of others, connection to community, and civic duty. 

Doesn’t prioritizing happiness put pleasure seeking above all else?

Today, science identifies four approaches to happiness: hedonism, eudaimonia, chaironic happiness, and flow.  Hedonism can be defined as seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, English philosophers, advocated for governments and society to seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people based on the hedonistic definition of happiness.  Chaironic happiness is a sense of openness and connection to God, spirit nature or a higher power. Philosophers ranging from Thomas Aquinas to C.G. Jung explored and advocated for chaironic happiness.  Flow, defined by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, is an experience of optimal experience or oneness with what one is doing. Aristotle posed that eudaimonia is the goal for government, society and personal life.  Today’s definition of happiness within the context of the happiness movement is most closely aligned with eudaimonia, but this definition encompasses aspects of hedonism, flow and chaironic happiness.

Happiness is not, and should not, be the purpose of government, correct?

The purpose of government is to secure the happiness of its people, The underlying assumption that governments globally have adopted since WWII is that strong economic growth, personal income and wealth and high consumption rates are highly correlated to happiness and there is a strong causal link). This assumption was the basis for the systems and institutions resulting from the post WWII Bretton Woods conference: International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, pegging currency to the US dollar, the World Trade Organization, and others.  This assumption is partially but not completely true. Nations with higher per capita incomes have happier people, but income, consumption and economic growth are causally related to happiness only up to a certain level of personal income, commonly called the Easterlin Paradox (based on longitudinal data collected by Richard Easterlin), and loosely correlated to happiness (O’Donnell et. al., 2014).

The assumption that income and economic growth are causally related to happiness breaks down when considering income distribution. This was one reason for the call for nations to adopt wider measures of well-being (i.e. happiness) by French President Sarkozy in 2009, based on findings of the Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress, commonly known as the Stieglitz Report. Scientific research, such as that recently conducted by Andrew Clark and others (see post about Origins of Happiness) indicate that there are many other factors, including social connection, strong communities, sense of safety, rewarding employment, and mental health, that have as high or higher correlation values to happiness, thus pointing directions for governmental policy that promote these goals as well as the goals of economic growth.

Resources and Links:
·      Stigliz, J., Sen, A. & Fitoussi. J.P. (2009, September). Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/documents/rapport_anglais.pdf
·       Easterlin, R. (1974). Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? In P. David & R.. P. & Reder, R. (Eds.), Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses (pp. 89–-125).  New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc. http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/04/16/business/Easterlin1974.pdf
·       Easterlin, R. (2001). Income and happiness: towards a unified theory. The Economic Journal, 111(473), 465-484.  doi: 10.1111/1468-0297.00646
·       Easterlin, R. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 27,(1), 35–-48. doi:10.1016/0167-2681(95)00003-B
·      O’Donnell, G., Deaton, A., Halpern, D., Durand, M., & Layard, R. (2014). Wellbeing and Public Policy. Legatum Institute. http://www.li.com/programmes/the-commission-on-wellbeing-and-policy
·      Blog post on Origins of Happiness: http://voxeu.org/article/origins-happiness

What governments are measuring happiness?

Thirty-nine of the forty OECD member countries are measuring happiness, according to Martine Durand, Director Employment Labor and Social Affairs and Chief Statistician at the OECD. Many other countries that are not member of the OECD are also measuring happiness in terms of affect, eudaimonia, satisfaction with life and the circumstances with life (see the essay Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness, link below).

·      Martine Durand https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nhNjD3bnMYg&t=38s
·      Essay compiling nations measuring happiness: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness - which countries and measuring happiness and how. http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/jsc/vol8/iss1/5/

There are no examples of happiness policy, are there?

Bhutan has promulgated many policies informed by and with the goal of the happiness of the nation. See examples in the essay, Happiness in Public Policy, for a compilation of some of these policies. That said, these examples come from one small nation in which the culture is homogenous and the country and population is quite small compared to most other nations. The challenge today is how to use happiness data to inform policy, and the need is for a government to take the lead, as identified by the EU BRAINPOoL Report in 2015.

·      Happiness in Public Policy essay on happiness policies http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/jsc/vol6/iss1/5/
·       Whitby, A., Seaford, C., Berry, C., & BRAINPOoL Consortium Partners. (2014, March 31). BRAINPOoL project final report: Beyond GDP: from measurement to politics and policy. BRAINPOoL Deliverable 5.2, A collaborative programme funded by the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under Grant Agreement No. 283024. World Future Council. Retrieved from http://www.brainpoolproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/BRAINPOoL-Project-Final-Report.pdf

If the purpose of government is the happiness of citizens and residents, then government will dictate actions, force people to be happy, and punish those who do not say they are happy, right?

The purpose of government is to secure the conditions that enable people to become or pursue happiness and to live a good life, not to dictate behaviors or actions or force people to be happy. What brings happiness for any one person is as unique as each person. When government aims to increase the happiness of their people, its job is to assess and understand people’s state of happiness and identify the policies and programs that will best provide opportunities for people to take action or choose a behavior that they believe will increase their happiness.

What is the difference between happiness and well-being?

Some nations are using the terms synonymously, others use the term well-being in lieu of happiness, and some propose that happiness is used to describe subjective well-being measured through surveys (questionnaires, polls, etc.) and well-being to describe the use of objective metrics. 

Won’t happiness distract governments and people from the ecological disasters from climate change, ecosystem destruction, political and physical water shortage, soil depletion and other ecological threats that we are facing? And what about social justice and inequalities? Won’t happiness mean that some people are happy at the expense of others?

The happiness movement represents a wider understanding of individual and national wellbeing that includes the domains of our environment and society, and many other domains listed above.  This is why the measurement tools for happiness cover so many domains. This data is also helping us understand how issues such as ecological health, social support, income equality, meaningful employment, and many other aspects of life, not considered when relying upon a single domain or a single economic measure such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), affect us. Happiness data also reveals enlightening information about different groups of people, and help point the way for policy that secures equitable opportunities for all people’s happiness. 

Learn more about the Happiness Movement: http://www.happycounts.org/happy-community-toolkit.html